Tags: Henry Tudor
Martin Luther (born 10 November 1483) nails his 95 thesis on the church door in Eisleben in the evening of 31 October 1517, because the next day, 1 November, is All Saints’ Day, when everyone would come to church.
In the 95 theses he explains his view based on the Gospel that salvation is a free gift from God and cannot be earned by good deeds or purchased by buying indulgences . This is often regarded as the starting point of the reformation. While his original aim was to reform the church, the Pope saw it differently, which ultimately led to the split with the Catholic church. As Luther was of the opinion that the Bible was the only source for knowledge of God, he translated it into German to make it accessible to everyone.
31 October is celebrated in the Lutheran church as Reformation Day commemorating Luther’s stand.
Death of King Alfred ‘The Great’, king of the West Saxons and of the Anglo-Saxons. Alfred was born in 848/49, the son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex (d. 858) and of Osburh, daughter of Oslac, the king’s butler. He was the youngest of at least six children.
He was eventually succeeded by his son Edward. About two years after his father’s death, Edward buried his father in the New Minster at Winchester.
Source: ODNB, ‘Alfred (848/9–899)’, by Patrick Wormald, online edition Oct 2006.
Tags: Anglo Saxon
The Annual General Meeting of the New South Wales Branch of the Richard III Society was held on Saturday, 11 October 2014, at the Sydney Mechanics Institute.
Opening remarks were made by Chair Judith along with a warm welcome to all the members and visitors present. Thanks were expressed for the work of all the committee members throughout the year.
All of the officers then gave reports for their areas, and then officially stepped down. Margaret conducted the election process for all of the officers of the branch with most returning unopposed to their roles: Judith continues as Chair, Jacqueline as Deputy Chair, Judy as Treasurer, Dorothea as Webmaster, Lynne as Sales Officer, Joan as Tea Lady, Rachel as Secretary, and Leslie & Doug as Editors of the Affinity newsletter.
The program consisted of three ‘Scrabble’ speakers, giving separate presentations on different and very interesting topics.
Maggie told us of her experiences during her recent trip to the UK during which she laid the wreath on behalf of Australian Branches of the Richard III Society during the Bosworth commemoration ceremonies. Afterwards, she informally showed us interesting photos she had taken during the trip.
Dorothea had the letter ‘Y’ and shared her well-illustrated research about the history of the ancient church of St Mary de Castro in Leicester, which has been in existence for more than 900 years. Richard, duke of York, had in 1426 been knighted in this church.
Rachel spoke on the letter ‘R’ for rehabilitation. In an interesting talk entitled “Was Joan of Arc a Witch?” she addressed the charges raised against Joan, her astute responses to them, and the arguments for her defence that could have been made if her trial had been a fairer one, conducted in less prejudicial circumstances.
Our next gathering will be our Christmas meeting scheduled for 13 December 2014, when our guest speaker Wendy Schmid will be discussing medieval embroidery. All of the 2015 speakers will be listed in the next issue of the branch newsletter, Affinity.
Tags: Richard III
Birth of Edward of Lancaster, only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou, at Westminster. He was the Lancastrian Prince of Wales. He was baptised on 14 October by William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester.
On 13 December 1470 he was married to Anne Neville, who was 14 at the time, as part of an agreement between his mother, Margaret of Anjou, and Anne’s father, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (“The Kingmaker”) to return Henry VI to the throne. Edward fell at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471.
The picture shows the Palace of Westminster, how it supposedly looked in the 16th century.
Christopher Columbus arrives in America, or more exactly one of the islands in the Bahamas. A group of three ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Niña, left Spain on 3 August. They first sailed to the Canary Islands. From there the journey across the Atlantic took 5 weeks.
In October 1977, I visited a replica of the Santa Maria, the largest of the three ships, in Barcelona – and was amazed how small it was. In the photo on the right you can see Columbus pointing the way over my head.
Warwick’s re-inforcements from the garrison of Calais under Andrew Trollope defected to the Lancastrians. The Yorkist leaders fled, York and Rutland to Ireland, and Edward, Earl of March (York’s eldest son), Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, and his son Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, to Calais. After the battle Cecily, Duchess of York, and her three youngest children George, Margaret and Richard, were taken prisoner by the Lancastrians and placed into the care of Cecily’s older sister Anne, Duchess of Buckingham.