Birth of Queen Isabella I of Castile, the mother of Katherine of Aragon, Henry VIII’s first wife.
Isabella married on 19 October 1469 Ferdinand of Aragon. During Isabella’s reign the last Moorish kingdom in Spain, Granada, fell on 2 January 1492, ending centuries of peaceful religious co-existence between Muslims, Christians and Jews. In the same year, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered America.
Isabella died on 26 November 1504.
In the Alhambra Decree, Isabella of Castile and Fernando of Aragon order all Jews to leave their kingdoms by 31 July 1492. This was in spite of them guaranteeing religious freedom in the Treaty of Granada, signed in 1491 between Emir Muhammad XII and Isabella of Castile. However, the Fall of Granada on 2 January 1492 changed everything.
While under Moorish rule Jews and Christians had been free to practice their religion and learning and trade had flourished, this changed dramatically with the Alhambra Decree and a time of religious persecution and much suffering began.
(Photograph of the Alhambra in Granada by D Preis)
Birth of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the father of Catherine of Aragon.
Alhambra in Granada (© D Preis)
Fall of Granada
On 2 January 1492, Granada fell, ending nearly 800 years of Moorish rule on the Iberian peninsula. Granada, the last Moorish outpost, had been besieged by the forces of Isabella of Castile and Fernando of Aragon for several months.
Under Moorish rule Jews and Christians had been free to practice their religion, and learning and trade had flourished. The Treaty of Granada, signed in 1491 between Emir Muhammad XII and Isabella of Castile, should have guaranteed religious freedom to continue. However, on 31 March 1492 Fernando and Isabella ordered all Jews to leave by 31 July 1492, in the Alhambra Decree.
More information on the Fall of Granada here.
Statue of Christopher Columbus (D. Preis)
Replica of the Santa Maria (D. Preis)
Christopher Columbus arrives in America, or more exactly one of the islands in the Bahamas. A group of three ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Niña, left Spain on 3 August. They first sailed to the Canary Islands. From there the journey across the Atlantic took 5 weeks.
In October 1977, I visited a replica of the Santa Maria, the largest of the three ships, in Barcelona – and was amazed how small it was. In the photo on the right you can see Columbus pointing the way over my head.
Tags: New World, Spain
Malaga surrenders to the Christian forces of Isabella of Castile and Fernando de Aragon. Malaga was at that time part of the Emirate of Granada, which eventually fell in 1492.
A century earlier the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta had described Malaga as “one of the largest and most beautiful towns of Andalusia [uniting] the conveniences of both sea and land, and is abundantly supplied with foodstuffs and fruits” [quoted in Wikipedia ‘Malaga’].
(Photograph of the Patio de los Naranjos in the Alcazaba, Malaga, by D Preis)