9
Apr

9 APRIL 1483

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Edward IV dies at Westminster, buried at St Georges Chapel, Windsor.  It is assumed that he named his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as Lord Protector of England during his son Edward’s minority.

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9
Apr

9 APRIL 1413

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Coronation of Henry V at Westminster

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6
Apr

6 APRIL 1199

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Richard I (the ‘Lionheart’) dies from an infected arrow wound to his shoulder.  He received this by accident while besieging the small, virtually unarmed castle of Chalus-Chabrol.

Richard was born on 8 September 1157, the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

He was crowned King of England on 3 September 1189.  Richard spend only 6 months of his reign in England, first going on the Third Crusade, on his return he was imprisoned in Austria.  His mother worked hard to raise the ransom of 150,000 marks (65,000 pounds of silver) equaling 2–3 times the annual income for the English Crown at that time.

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31
Mar

31 MARCH 1492

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

In the Alhambra Decree, Isabella of Castile and Fernando of Aragon order all Jews to leave their kingdoms by 31 July 1492.  This was in spite of them guaranteeing religious freedom in the Treaty of Granada, signed in 1491 between Emir Muhammad XII and Isabella of Castile.  However, the Fall of Granada on 2 January 1492 changed everything.

While under Moorish rule Jews and Christians had been free to practice their religion and learning and trade had flourished, this changed dramatically with the Alhambra Decree and a time of religious persecution and much suffering began.

(Photograph of the Alhambra in Granada by D Preis)

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31
Mar

31 MARCH 1204

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine.  She was first married to Louis VII of France, from 1137 until their divorce in spring 1352.  She married Henry II of England in May 1352.  At the time of her death she was 82.

She was buried at the abbey church in Fontevrault, next to her second husband.  Several of their children, including their son Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ are also buried there.

Source: ODNB ‘Eleanor , suo jure duchess of Aquitaine (c.1122–1204)’

Photograph of the tomb effigies of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II at Fontevrault Abbey taken by ElanorGamgee; obtained through Wikimedia Commons.

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29
Mar

Battle of Towton

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Battle of Towton

Towton Cross

Battle of Towton – the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil

The Battle of Towton , regarded as  “the largest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil”, was fought in a snow storm on Palm Sunday, 29 March 1461, between the Lancastrian forces of King Henry VI and the Yorkist forces led by Edward, Earl of March.  It has been said that 28,000 men died that day, out of 50,000 to 100,000 soldiers.  The result was a Yorkist victory and Edward became king as Edward IV.

In 1996 a mass grave of fallen soldiers was found at Towton Hall.  Their remains have been studied by the University of Bradford.

Edward IV had planned to build a memorial chapel at Towton, but it was Richard III, who put this plan into action.  The chapel was nearly finished, when he was killed at Bosworth, and the chapel had been lost.  Or so it was thought.  In October 2013 it was revealed that scientists had found strong evidence of remains of the chapel.

In 2010 fragments of hand held guns and lead shot were found at the battle site, the earliest ever to be found.

References:

Helen Cox, ‘Towton: the Battle and the Battlefield Society’, Herstory Writing & Interpretation (4 Sept 2010).  Link “Towton” on URL:  http://helencox-herstorywriting.co.uk/#/articles/4539783477  Date accessed:  19 Oct 2010

T. Sutherland & A. Schmidt,’The Towton Battlefield Archaeological Survey Project:  An Integrated Approach to Battlefield Archaeology’, Landscapes, Vol.4, Issue 2 (October 2003), pp.15-25.  Available from URL:  http://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk:8080/bitstream/handle/10454/818/Towton03-Preprint.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y  Date accessed:  30 December 2014

‘Richard III Towton chapel remains are ‘found’’, BBC News York & North Yorkshire (7 Oct 2013).  URL:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-york-north-yorkshire-24434795  Date accessed:  8 Oct 2013

A short description of the various battles of the Wars of the Roses can be found on the website of the Richard III Society.

Dorothea Preis

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28
Mar

END OF MARCH 1484

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Death of Edward of Middleham, only son of Richard III and Anne Neville

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28
Mar

Skirmish at Ferrybridge

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Skirmish at Ferrybridge

Skirmish at Ferrybridge

On 28 March 1461, a skirmish at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire, was fought in the lead-up to the Battle of Towton.  Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (‘The Kingmaker”), received an arrow wound to the leg.  John, Lord Clifford, (believed to be responsible for the death of Edward IV’s brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland) fell on the Lancastrian side.

Traditionally the skirmishes at Ferrybridge and Dintingdale (also on 28 March 1461) and the battle of Towton were seen as three separate battles, both in space and time.  However, Tim Sutherland argues, that these were rather three interconnected conflicts. He bases his analysis on archaeological finds and a new interpretation of the sources.

Reference:

Tim Sutherland, ‘Killing Time:  Challenging the common perceptions of three medieval conflicts – Ferrybridge, Dintingdale and Towton  — ”The Largest Battle on British Soil”’, Journal of Conflict Archaeology, Vol.5 No.1 (2010). Available from URL:  http://www.towton.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/killing-time_tim_sutherland.pdf  Date accessed:  14 December 2011

A short description of the various battles of the Wars of the Roses can be found on the website of the Richard III Society.

Dorothea Preis

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22
Mar

22 MARCH 1459

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Birth of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.  His first wife was Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold of Burgundy and stepdaughter of Margaret of York.  Maximilian was a strong supporter of “Perkin Warbeck” or Richard of York.

Rather than going to war, he sought to strengthen his country’s position by diplomatic marriages, which was summed up in the couplet:

Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube.
Nam quae Mars aliis, dat tibi diva Venus.

(Let others wage war, but thou, O happy Austria, marry; for those kingdoms which Mars gives to others, Venus gives to thee.)

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20
Mar

Birth of Cecily of York

   Posted by: Lawrence Osborn   in Events in History

Birth of Cecily of York

Birth of Cecily of York

Cecily of York

Birth of Cecily of York, third daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, at Westminster Palace on 20 March 1469.

Married (1) 1484 to Ralph Scrope of Upsall, union annulled  in 1486, after accession of Henry VII.

Married (2) before New Year’s Day 1488 to John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, half-brother of Henry VII’s mother Margaret Beaufort.  They had two daughters, Elizabeth and Anne.  Welles died on 9 February 1499.

Married (3) to Sir Thomas Kyme of Friskney (in Lincolnshire) in 1502 without Henry VII’s permission and she was banished from court and all her estates were confiscated, though some were returned later.  It is not clear whether they had any children.

Cecily died on 24 August 1507 at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

References:

ODNB ‘Cecily, Viscountess Welles (1469–1507)’ (accessed online: 11 May 2011)

Susan Higginbotham, ‘The Queen’s Sister: Cecil, Viscountess Welles’, History Refreshed by Susan Higginbotham (1 September 2013).  URL: http://www.susanhigginbotham.com/blog/posts/the-queens-sister-cecily-viscountess-welles/  Date accessed:  29 December 2014

Dorothea Preis

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