Posts Tagged ‘Edward IV’
Battle of Towton – the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil
The Battle of Towton , regarded as “the largest and bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil”, was fought in a snow storm on Palm Sunday, 29 March 1461, between the Lancastrian forces of King Henry VI and the Yorkist forces led by Edward, Earl of March. It has been said that 28,000 men died that day, out of 50,000 to 100,000 soldiers. The result was a Yorkist victory and Edward became king as Edward IV.
In 1996 a mass grave of fallen soldiers was found at Towton Hall. Their remains have been studied by the University of Bradford.
Edward IV had planned to build a memorial chapel at Towton, but it was Richard III, who put this plan into action. The chapel was nearly finished, when he was killed at Bosworth, and the chapel had been lost. Or so it was thought. In October 2013 it was revealed that scientists had found strong evidence of remains of the chapel.
In 2010 fragments of hand held guns and lead shot were found at the battle site, the earliest ever to be found.
Helen Cox, ‘Towton: the Battle and the Battlefield Society’, Herstory Writing & Interpretation (4 Sept 2010). Link “Towton” on URL: http://helencox-herstorywriting.co.uk/#/articles/4539783477 Date accessed: 19 Oct 2010
T. Sutherland & A. Schmidt,’The Towton Battlefield Archaeological Survey Project: An Integrated Approach to Battlefield Archaeology’, Landscapes, Vol.4, Issue 2 (October 2003), pp.15-25. Available from URL: http://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk:8080/bitstream/handle/10454/818/Towton03-Preprint.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Date accessed: 30 December 2014
‘Richard III Towton chapel remains are ‘found’’, BBC News York & North Yorkshire (7 Oct 2013). URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-york-north-yorkshire-24434795 Date accessed: 8 Oct 2013
A short description of the various battles of the Wars of the Roses can be found on the website of the Richard III Society.
Birth of Cecily of York
Birth of Cecily of York, third daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, at Westminster Palace on 20 March 1469.
Married (1) 1484 to Ralph Scrope of Upsall, union annulled in 1486, after accession of Henry VII.
Married (2) before New Year’s Day 1488 to John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, half-brother of Henry VII’s mother Margaret Beaufort. They had two daughters, Elizabeth and Anne. Welles died on 9 February 1499.
Married (3) to Sir Thomas Kyme of Friskney (in Lincolnshire) in 1502 without Henry VII’s permission and she was banished from court and all her estates were confiscated, though some were returned later. It is not clear whether they had any children.
Cecily died on 24 August 1507 at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.
ODNB ‘Cecily, Viscountess Welles (1469–1507)’ (accessed online: 11 May 2011)
Susan Higginbotham, ‘The Queen’s Sister: Cecil, Viscountess Welles’, History Refreshed by Susan Higginbotham (1 September 2013). URL: http://www.susanhigginbotham.com/blog/posts/the-queens-sister-cecily-viscountess-welles/ Date accessed: 29 December 2014
Investiture of Edward, Earl of March (eldest son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville) as King Edward IV of England. Edward seized the crown on three counts: descent from Edward III through the male line, descent from Edward III through the female line and the nomination of the childless Richard II’s of his Mortimer cousins as his heirs.
Tags: Edward IV
Birth of Eleanor Talbot, daughter of John Talbot, 1st earl of Shrewsbury, and Margaret Beauchamp at Blakemere, Shropshire. She is said to have entered probably some time after March 1461 into a clandestine marriage with Edward IV, which made his subsequent, also clandestine, marriage to Elizabeth Woodville bigamous.
More on Eleanor:
John Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor – The Secret Queen, The History Press. ISBN 978-0752448664
The Battle of Mortimer’s Cross was fought on 2 February 1461 in Herefordshire, It was an important battle in the Wars of the Roses.
In the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross the Yorkists were led by 18-year-old Edward, Earl of March (later Edward IV). They intercepted a Lancastrian forces led by Owen Tudor and his son Jasper into England. The Lancastrians outnumbered the Yorkists considerably and were better mounted and armed. The Yorkists were encouraged by a parhelion, a meteorological phenomenon in which three suns appear. This is the origin of Edward’s badge ‘The Sun in Splendour’.
Unfortunately the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross is not very well documented. The fighting must have been ferocious in adverse weather conditions in the middle of winter.
After the battle Owen Tudor was captured and executed in Hereford, along with other prisoners of rank.
To find out more:
Mortimer’s Cross, Richard III Foundation.
Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, Battlefields Resource Centre.
Jennifer Young, ‘The Mortimer’s Cross Parhelion: How a Meteorological Phenomenon Changed English History’, Decoded Science (2 October 2011). URL: http://www.decodedscience.com/the-mortimers-cross-parhelion-how-a-meteorological-phenomenon-changed-english-history/3437 [accessed 26 January 2015]